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Internet Services
Internet Service Provider (abbr. ISP, also called Internet access provider or IAP) is a business or organization that provides to consumers access to the Internet and related services. In the past, most ISPs were run by the phone companies. Now, ISPs can be started by just about any individual or group with sufficient money and expertise. In addition to Internet access via various technologies such as dial-up and DSL, they may provide a combination of services including Internet transit, domain name registration and hosting, web hosting, and colocation.

ISP Connection Options

ISPs employ a range of technologies to enable consumers to connect to their network. For "home users", the most popular options include dial-up, DSL (typically ADSL), Broadband wireless access, Cable modem, and ISDN (typically BRI). For customers who have more demanding requirements, such as medium-to-large businesses, or other ISPs, DSL (often SHDSL or ADSL), Ethernet, Metro Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet, Frame Relay, ISDN (BRI or PRI), ATM, satellite Internet access and SONET are more likely. With the increasing popularity of downloading music and online video and the general demand for faster page loads, higher bandwidth connections are becoming more popular.

Typical Home User Connection

  • Dial-up
  • DSL
  • Broadband wireless access
  • Cable modem
  • ISDN
  • Typical Business connection
  • DSL
  • SHDSL
  • Ethernet technologies

How ISPs connect to the Internet
Just as their customers pay them for Internet access, ISPs themselves pay upstream ISPs for Internet access. In the simplest case, a single connection is established to an upstream ISP using one of the technologies described above, and the ISP uses this connection to send or receive any data to or from parts of the Internet beyond its own network; in turn, the upstream ISP uses its own upstream connection, or connections to its other customers (usually other ISPs) to allow the data to travel from source to destination.

In reality, the situation is often more complicated. For example, ISPs with more than one Point of presence (PoP) may have separate connections to an upstream ISP at multiple PoPs, or they may be customers of multiple upstream ISPs and have connections to each one at one or more of their PoPs. ISPs may engage in peering, where multiple ISPs interconnect with one another at a peering point or Internet exchange point (IX), allowing the routing of data between their networks, without charging one another for that data - data that would otherwise have passed through their upstream ISPs, incurring charges from the upstream ISP. ISPs that require no upstream, and have only customers and/or peers, are called Tier 1 ISPs, indicating their status as ISPs at the top of the Internet hierarchy. Routers, switches, Internet routing protocols, and the expertise of network administrators all have a role to play in ensuring that data follows the best available route and that ISPs can "see" one another on the Internet.

Virtual ISP

A Virtual ISP (vISP) purchases services from another ISP (sometimes called a wholesale ISP or similar within this context) that allow the vISP's customers to access the Internet via one or more Points of Presence (PoPs) that are owned and operated by the wholesale ISP. There are various models for the delivery of this type of service, for example, the wholesale ISP could provide network access to end users via its dial-up modem PoPs or DSLAMs installed in telephone exchanges, and route, switch, and/or tunnel the end user traffic to the vISP's network, whereupon they may route the traffic toward its destination. In another model, the vISP does not route any end user traffic, and needs only provide AAA (Authentication, Authorization and Accounting) functions, as well as any "value-add" services like email or web hosting. Any given ISP may use their own PoPs to deliver one service, and use a vISP model to deliver another service, or, use a combination to deliver a service in different areas. The service provided by a wholesale ISP in a vISP model is distinct from that of an upstream ISP, even though in some cases, they may both be one and the same company. The former provides connectivity from the end user's premises to the Internet or to the end user's ISP, the latter provides connectivity from the end user's ISP to all or parts of the rest of the Internet.

A vISP can also refer to a completely automated white label service offered to anyone at no cost or for a minimal set-up fee. The actual ISP providing the service generates revenue from the calls and may also share a percentage of that revenue with the owner of the vISP. All technical aspects are dealt with leaving the owner of vISP with the task of promoting the service. This sort of service is however declining due to the popularity of unmetered internet access also known as flatrate.

Related Services
  
    1) Broadband access

  • Fixed wireless access
  • Cable
  • Triple play

    2) Internet hosting service

  • Web hosting service
  • E-mail hosting service
  • DNS hosting service

    3)Dynamic DNS

Growth Rate of Internet/Broadband
Year Internet Subscribers
(in lakhs)
Growth% Broadband  Subscribers
(in lakhs)
Growth%
 Mar - 98  1.4      
 Mar - 99 2.8 100%  
   
 

  Mar - 00
   
 9 221%    
 Mar - 01
 30
   
223%
 
 Mar - 02 32 7%
 
   
 
 Mar - 03  36 13%  0.08
 

 Mar - 04
   
 45  25 %  0.19
 138 %
  Mar - 05
 56.5

 26 %
 1.8
 847 %
 Mar - 06  69.4  23 %  13.5  650 %
Sep - 06
 88  27 %  18.2 35%
 Dec - 06
 

 

21 15%


Internet Service Providers (ISPs) in India

  • BSNL
  • CMC
  • RPG Infotech    
  • Essel Shyam Communications
  • Sify
  • Siti Cable Network
  • Gateway Systems (India)
  • World Phone Internet Services
  • VSNL
  • Guj Info Petro    
  • Hughes Escorts Communications
  • Astro India Networks
  • Reliance
  • Primus Telecommunications India    
  • ERNET India    
  • RailTel Corporation
  • Data
  • Infosys
  • GTL    
  • Jumpp India
  • L&T Finance
  • HCL Infinet
  • Primenet Global    
  • Tata Internet Services    
  • Tata Power Broadband
  • Bharti
  • Infotel    
  • Pacific Internet India
  • In2Cable (India)
  • Reliance Engineering Associates
  • BG Broad India
  • Swiftmail Communications
  • Estel Communication
  • Bharti Aquanet
  • Trak Online Net India
  • Spectra Net
  • Reach Network India
  • i2i Enterprise
  • Tata Teleservices (Maharashtra)
  • Comsat Max    
  • Gujarat Narmada Valley Fertilizers Corporation
  • HCL
  • Comnet Systems and Services
  • Harthway Cable       

ICANN
ICANN is responsible for the global coordination of the Internet's system of unique identifiers. These include domain names (like .org, .museum and country codes like .UK), as well as the addresses used in a variety of Internet protocols. Computers use these identifiers to reach each other over the Internet. Careful management of these resources is vital to the Internet's operation, so ICANN's global stakeholders meet regularly to develop policies that ensure the Internet's ongoing security and stability.

ICANN is the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers. Headquartered in Marina Del Rey, California, ICANN is a California non-profit corporation that was created on September 18, 1998 in order to oversee a number of Internet-related tasks previously performed directly on behalf of the U.S. Government by other organizations, notably IANA.The tasks of ICANN include managing the assignment of domain names and IP addresses. To date, much of its work has concerned the introduction of new generic top-level domains. The technical work of ICANN is referred to as the IANA function; the rest of ICANN is mostly concerned with defining policy.

On September 29, 2006, ICANN signed a new agreement with the United States Department of Commerce (DOC) that is a step forward toward the full management of the Internet's system of centrally coordinated identifiers through the multi-stakeholder model of consultation that ICANN represents.Paul Twomey is the President/CEO of ICANN, since March 27, 2003. Internet inventor Vint Cerf is currently Chairman of the ICANN Board of Directors.

Structure of ICANN
At present, ICANN is formally organized as a non-profit corporation "for charitable and public purposes" under the California Nonprofit Public Benefit Corporation Law. It is managed by a Board of Directors, which is composed by six representatives of the Supporting Organizations, sub-groups that deal with specific sections of the policies under ICANN's purview; eight independent representatives of the general public interest, selected through a Nominating Committee in which all the constituencies of ICANN are represented; and the President and CEO, appointed by the rest of the Board.

The Supporting Organizations are currently three: the Generic Names Supporting Organization (GNSO) deals with policy making on generic top-level domains (gTLDs); the Country Code Names Supporting Organization (ccNSO) deals with policy making on country-code top-level domains (ccTLDs); the Address Supporting Organization (ASO) deals with policy making on IP addresses.

ICANN also relies on some advisory committees to receive advice on the interests and needs of stakeholders that do not directly participate in the Supporting Organization. These include the Governmental Advisory Committee (GAC), which is composed by representatives of a great number of national governments from all the world; the At-Large Advisory Committee (ALAC), which is composed by representatives of organizations of individual Internet users from all the world; the Root Server System Advisory Committee, providing advice on the operation of the DNS root server system; the Security and Stability Advisory Committee (SSAC), composed by Internet experts who study security issues pertaining to ICANN's mandate; and the Technical Liaison Group (TLG), composed by representatives of other international technical organizations of the Internet.

ICANN Procedures

ICANN holds periodic public meetings rotated between continents for the expressed purpose of encouraging global participation in its processes. Critics argue that the locations of these meetings are often in countries with lower Internet usage and far away from locations that the majority of the Internet-using public can afford to reach, thus making public input or participation from traditional Internet users less likely. Supporters reply that ICANN has a worldwide remit and a key part of its mission is to build Internet use where it is weak.

ICANN was set up in California due to the presence of Jon Postel, who was a founder of ICANN and was set to be its first CTO prior to his unexpected death. ICANN remains in the same building where he worked, which is home to an office of the Information Sciences Institute at the University of Southern California.

Resolutions of the ICANN Board, preliminary reports and minutes of the meetings are published for the public to view on the ICANN website. However there are criticisms from ICANN constituencies like Noncommercial Users Constituency (NCUC) and At-Large Advisory Committee (ALAC) that there is not enough public disclosure and that too many discussions take place out of sight of the public.

Web Portal

A web portal is a site that functions as a point of access to information on the World Wide Web. Portals present information from diverse sources in a unified way. Popular portals are MSN, Yahoo, and AOL. Aside from the search engine standard, web portals offer other services such as news, stock prices, infotainment and various other features. Portals provide a way for enterprises to provide a consistent look and feel with access control and procedures for multiple applications, which otherwise would have been different entities altogether.A personal portal is a site on the World Wide Web that typically provides personalized capabilities to its visitors, providing a pathway to other content. It is designed to use distributed applications, different numbers and types of middleware and hardware to provide services from a number of different sources. In addition, business portals are designed to share collaboration in workplaces. A further business-driven requirement of portals is that the content be able to work on multiple platforms such as personal computers, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and cell phones.

Why Portals?

'It is often necessary to have a centralized application that has access to various other applications within the same enterprise to share the information across the applications. Also the various users with different roles accessing the different applications prefer to have a single access point to all of them over the Internet. They like to personalize the applications and have the coupled applications coordinated. Above all, the administrator users like to have administrative tools all in a single place to administer all the applications. All these are achieved through portals. Since all the applications share information through portals, there is better communication between various types of users. Another advantage of portals is that they can make event-driven campaigns. Below is detailed list of advantages of using portals:

  • Intelligent integration and access to enterprise content, applications and processes
  • Improved communication and collaboration among customers, partners, and employees
  • Unified, real-time access to information held in disparate systems
  • Personalized user interactions
  • Rapid, easy modification and maintenance of the website presentation

Properties of Portals:

  • Look and feel
  • Consistent headers and footers, color schemes, icons and logos which gives the user a feel and sense of consistency, uniformity, and ease of navigation
  • A portal is an application within a browser window, displayed in an effective layout
  • A portal is itself a web application
  • Portals are aggregated by the portal page.

Customization

  • Users control, on an individual basis, a portal’s look and feel by setting portal layout, look and feel.

World Wide Web
The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. With a web browser, a user views web pages that may contain text, images, and other multimedia and navigates between them using hyperlinks. The World Wide Web was created in 1989 by Sir Tim Berners-Lee from England, and Robert Cailliau from Belgium, working at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. Since then, Berners-Lee has played an active role in guiding the development of web standards (such as the markup languages in which web pages are composed), and in recent years has advocated his vision of a Semantic Web.

Standards
Many formal standards and other technical specifications define the operation of different aspects of the World Wide Web, the Internet, and computer information exchange. Many of the documents are the work of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), headed by Berners-Lee, but some are produced by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and other organizations. Usually when web standards are discussed, the following publications are seen as foundational:

  • Recommendations for markup languages, especially HTML and XHTML, from the W3C. These define the structure and interpretation of hypertext documents.
  • Recommendations for style sheets, especially CSS, from the W3C.
  • Standards for ECMA Script, a.k.a. JavaScript, from Ecma International.
  • Recommendations for the Document Object Model, from W3C.

Additional publications provide definitions of other essential technologies for the World Wide Web, including, but not limited to, the following:

  • Uniform Resource Identifier (URI), which is a universal system for referencing resources on the Internet, such as hypertext documents and images.
  • HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP),which specify how the browser and server communicate with each other.


There are in all 183 operating Internet Service Providers in India. Of them 41* ISPs (listed below) have all-status. The remaining are particular state-pacific.ISPs having all-India licence include:


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